Data are denoted as mean ± S.E.M of n = 8 for treatment groups and n = 6 in the control groups. Kadukmy™ rich antioxidant supplementation causes significant reduction in the oxidative stress, increase NO level in the blood and reduction of serum total cholesterol that leads to reduction of endothelial dysfunction and attenuation of blood pressure in treated compared to untreated SHR. Or you can wrap just about any Thai food in the leaves, such as fried rice with a peanut or two, and pop them into your mouth. Accepted Name. Data are denoted as mean ± S.E.M of n = 8 for treatment groups and n = 6 in the control groups. This occurs when unsaturated lipids are oxidized to form additional radical species as well as toxic by-products that can injure the host system. Springer Nature. 2014;16:14–26. 2010;128(1):42–8. Despite the extensive usage and studies of this herb as alternative medicine, there is paucity of the literature on the safety information of this plant. Body weights of rats at the start of treatment were 250 ± 10% g. After the acclimatization period for 14 days, six SHRs were divided into a positive control groups and three treatment groups with eight SHRs in each group. CAS  Ima Nirwana Soelaiman The production of ROS mainly superoxide and free radicals need to be in equilibrium with antioxidant availability in biological systems because oxidative stress refers to a condition when this equilibrium is disturbed. For example, the polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxide end product is MDA. Del Rio D, Stewart A, Pellegrini N. A review of recent studies on malondialdehyde as toxic molecule and biological marker of oxidative stress. NO is usually released by an intact endothelial wall [29] and causes vasodilatation. Moreover, these nutrients could affect the … Patients who is diagnosed as essential hypertension is treated by symptomatic approach without identifying the exact cause. Organization WH. Bhd. The group treated with dose Kadukmy-1™ showed significant reduction compared to baseline and positive control groups. (11β-HSD1). *P < 0.05; compared to positive control, αP < 0.05; compared to baseline. One of the end products of lipid peroxidation is malondialdehyde (MDA). Latin piper is pro­genitor of almost all names of pepper in con­temporary Euro­pean lan­guages. 1980;288(5789):373–6. General Information Wild pepper is an evergreen shrub with stems up to 10 metres long that mainly creep along the ground It is also traditionally used to treat many diseases such as inflammation, dermatitis and joint pain. Heart rate of rats treated with Kadukmy™. At the end of the study, the level of serum NO increased significantly in treatment groups compared to both positive and negative control groups (Figure 5). Piper sarmentosum (PS) a traditional Malay herbal plant is well known for its high antioxidant content. Sciences SG-P for M and N. Archive. 1990;9(6):515–40. Since betel is an aromatic creeper, you can easily grow it as an ornamental plant in your homes and derive the maximum health benefits … J Med Food. If you are interested, go to my store on Etsy.com My name on Etsy is: SpecialtyThings or you can just search for Piper Betel I have small, medium, and large plants that are up to 24 inches tall. 2013;26(8):951–6. Glucocorticoid action in bone depends upon the expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme Malondialdehyde is available in serum, food, plasma, tissues and urine as a result of lipid peroxidation and it is the most commonly reported analytes for estimation of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress [39]. Therefore it is postulated that severe hypertensive rats will manifest low level of NO. 2013. It also accelerates fracture healing in the oestrogen deficient state through its Bhd. Mombouli J, Vanhoutte P. Endothelial dysfunction: from physiology to therapy. Thus, natural or organic remedies have become more popular [28]. Malaysia. Results were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (S.E.M). BMC Complement Altern Med. Insufficient amount of NO present in the vessel wall results in increased vascular wall tension and increases the blood pressure. Anat Rec. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Piper Sarmentosum. Ten determinations were made in every session of BP measurement and the mean of three values within 10 mmHg was taken as the BP level. Treatment modalities with herbal medicine, less side effects and is cheaper need to be explored.This review This study was conducted to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds of the leaf and fruit extract of P. sarmentosum, as well as 2003;1(1):91–106. Antioxidant defence mechanism is either by ROS scavenging (vitamins A, E and C, glutathione, ubiquinone, and flavonoids) or by enzymatic (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) degradation process [10]. Beta-blockers and diuretics are known to reduce blood pressure, but it is unable to prevent end organ damage [20]. Shah and Prof.Dr. Message The user has shared this species from India Biodiversity Portal with you. The blood pressure of rat were measured in conscious, prewarmed and restrained rats by non-invasive technique by a plethysmographic tail cuff method using CODA non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP) system (Kent Scientific Corporation, USA). Piper sarmentosum (PS) a traditional Malay herbal plant is well known for its high antioxidant content. The Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) in 2011 reported that the prevalence of hypertension in adult above 18 years of age was 35.1%. The present study was conducted in order to determine the antihypertensive effect of Kadukmy™ and ascertain its ability to increase NO level, reduce oxidative stress and cholesterol level in SHR. (PS) is a medicinal plant reported to possess various biological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-psychotic and anti-oxidant activity. When NO level is increased, vasodilatation takes place and lowers blood pressure. Circulation. Title:Piper Sarmentosum: A New Hope for the Treatment of Osteoporosis, Author(s):Elvy Suhana Mohd Ramli, Farihah Suhaimi, Fairus Ahmad, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Norazlina Mohamad and Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, Affiliation:Department of Pharmacology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ugusman A, Zakaria Z, Chua K. Flavanoids of piper sarmentosum and its cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress. It is known as kaduk in Malaysia and it possesses many potential bioactivities. Oparil S, Zaman M, Calhoun D. Pathogenesis of hypertension. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0565-z, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0565-z. List of various diseases cured by Piper Sarmentosum. The cost of conventional treatment is high and together with the adverse effects it leads to noncompliance. 1999;31(1):61–74. Previous research showed that high serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) are associated with high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Medicinal herbs refer to leaves, seeds, berries, roots, bark, or flowers of plants used for medicinal purposes. 2011;29(1):36–42. 2014;4(14):2771–82. ZZ supervised the work, provided the grants for the study, evaluated the data, corrected the manuscript and coordinated the study. James O, Friday E, Unekwuojo E. Antihypertensive effect of methanol extract of napoleona imperialis (p. beauv) in adrenaline induced hypertensive albino rats. The Piper betle has mid green slightly heart-shapped leaves. Extract of this herb consumed with warm milk has been known to regulate the movement of bowel and hence cure issue related to digestive system. Therefore the authors declare that there is no competing interest. The first is betel pepper (Piper betle) whose large, astringent leaves are employed all over South and South East Asia for the famous betel bit; I do not know of any other use. This is explained according to La Place’s Law of the heart whereby, the diameter of the arterioles is the most dominant factor that determines the diastolic blood pressure in which the larger the lumen, the lesser the pressure exerted into it [30,31]. (11β-HSD1). 1937. has a long history of medicinal usage and potential in treating many diseases and ailments. World J Sport Sci. Cite this article. Wessels A, Vermeulen J. Spatial distribution of “tissue‐specific” antigens in the developing human heart and skeletal muscle III. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community: a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension. Lipid peroxidation is one of the established mechanisms in oxidative stress in biological systems due to oxidation of unsaturated lipids especially polyunsaturated type that leads to the formation of free radicals and lipid peroxides that are harmful to viable tissues. Sixteen natural substances have been successfully isolated from the roots of P. sarmentosum, of which sarmentamide A, B, and C were the first to be reported.Sarmentine and sarmentosine showed strong inhibitory effects against Plasmodium falciparum (K1 type, a multidrug resistant strain) with EC 50 values of 4.5 and 3.9 µg/mL, respectively [].Among them, brachyamide B … Young leaves have a waxy surface. Endothelial dysfunction refers to impaired vasodilatation in response to acetylcholine [33] or bradykinin [34] and a state of proinflammatory and prothrombotic endothelium due to reduced endothelium-derived NO (EDNO). Piper Sarmentosum WILD BETEL Herbal Organic Dried betel leaves (piper betle) By eating in the form of a 'paan', betel leaves contain many curative and healing health benefits. Antioxid Redox Signal. This is explained by the theory that high blood flow leads to acute injury to the muscles. Am J Hypertens. Asgary S, Sahebkar A, Afshani MR, Keshvari M, Haghjooyjavanmard S, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Clinical evaluation of blood pressure lowering, endothelial function improving, hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of pomegranate juice in hypertensive subjects. Follow. Article  Glucocorticoid treatment is the leading cause of secondary osteoporosis. Data are denoted as mean ± S.E.M of n = 8 for treatment groups and n = 6 in the control groups. of South East Asia. Article  Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. [http://www.health.harvard.edu/heart-health/medications-for-treating-hypertension]. Studies have revealed antioxidant properties through its flavonoids compound naringenin which acts as a superoxide 0. NAMMN supervised the work, evaluated the data, corrected the manuscript and coordinated the study. Elvy Suhana Mohd Ramli, Farihah Suhaimi, Fairus Ahmad, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Norazlina Mohamad and Ima Nirwana Soelaiman, “Piper Sarmentosum: A New Hope for the Treatment of Osteoporosis”, Current Drug Targets (2013) 14: 1675. https://doi.org/10.2174/13894501113146660228, Department of Pharmacology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Malaysia, Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery (Discontinued), Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Cancer Agents, Novel Approaches in the Treatment of Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia: The Role of Partial Agonists of D2 Dopaminergic Receptors, Tumor Invasion and Oxidative Stress: Biomarkers and Therapeutic Strategies, Multiple Targeting by the Antitumor Drug Tamoxifen: A Structure-Activity Study, Targeted Therapy for Advanced Prostate Cancer: Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway, HDAC as a Therapeutic Target for Treatment of Endometrial Cancers, Treatment of Estrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer, Vitamin D Receptor is a Novel Drug Target for Ovarian Cancer Treatment, Risk Factors for Node Affectation and Recurrence in Endometrial Cancer, Biomarkers for Cancers in Women: Present Status and Future Perspectives, Cytochrome P450 Structure, Function and Clinical Significance: A Review, Genomic Identification of Potential Targets Unique to Candida albicans for the Discovery of Antifungal Agents, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate, a Microbicide Effective Against Enveloped and Nonenveloped Viruses, Molecular Docking: Challenges, Advances and its Use in Drug Discovery Perspective, Targeting c-MET/HGF Signaling Pathway in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers: Rationale and Progress, Targeting Cancer Stem Cells Pathways for the Effective Treatment of Cancer, Modelling Chemotherapy-induced Cardiotoxicity by Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Receptor Tyrosine Kinases as Therapeutic Targets the Model of the MET Oncogene. However we observed CPK and LDH level in our study. The benefits of various herbs on the oxidative stress related disorders like DM and atherosclerosis have been well documented. Piper sarmentosum (PS) is a herbal plant. 2011;12(9):1357–84. Hypertension, pulse, and other cardiovascular risk factors and vitamin D status in Finnish men. Diastolic blood pressure of rats treated with Kadukmy™. It indicated that Kadukmy™ treated group with Kadukmy-1™ and Kadukmy-2™ were able to reduce oxidative stress levels. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Data are denoted as mean ± S.E.M of n = 8 for treatment groups and n = 6 in the control groups. Heitzer T, Schlinzig T, Krohn K, Meinertz T, Münzel T. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease. Ann Emerg Med. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. However, the International Food Information Council Foundation 2012 reported that only 23% of patient obtained controlled blood pressure with medical treatment. It is estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that 80% of individuals worldwide rely on herbal medicines in primary health care. It is also traditionally used to treat many diseases such as inflammation, dermatitis and joint pain. 2013. stress which leads to increased bone resorption. It is a low molecular weight substance found in serum, plasma, tissues and urine [15]. LDH is an enzyme that is found in almost all body tissue and it catalyses the inter conversion of pyruvate to lactate [41] in an anaerobic condition. It is known for its medicinal properties and contains a variety of active chemical compounds. *P < 0.05; compared to positive control, αP < 0.05; compared to baseline, ∞P < 0.05; compared to other treatment groups. Hypertens Res. See black pepper for more infor­mation.. The activity was found to be 96.21% as compared to Vitamin C and 95.69% by superoxide dismutase scavenging process. However, they did not show significant difference compared to negative control at the third and fifth week of the study (Figures 2, 3). Piper sarmentosum(PS) is a traditional herb which is well-known for possessing antidiabeticproperties. Early detection of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with chest pain and nondiagnostic ECGs: serial CK-MB sampling in the emergency department. This plant is commonly called The Pepper Leaf Plant or Betle Plant. Inter J Biochemistry Res Rev. Baseline blood investigations were done before and following commencement of treatment. The benefits of various herbs on the oxidative stress related disorders like DM and atherosclerosis have been well documented. Thus, it contains potentially useful properties to be assessed for human use as treatment for hypertension. Johnsen S, Lilleng H. Creatine kinase activity and blood pressure in a normal population: the tromsø study. Antihypertensive effects of Gynura procumbens extract in spontaneously hypertensive rats. As the DBP was affected more than SBP, it suggests that vasodilatation of the vessel wall play a major role in reducing the blood pressure in the present study compared to other factors such as reduced heart rate or blood volume. Lipids Health Dis. Free Radic Biol Med. Names of Piper Sarmentosum in various languages of the world are also given. volume 15, Article number: 54 (2015) of South East Asia. Rodrigo R, González J, Paoletto F. The role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of hypertension. Add to cart Lolot is a herbaceous perennial vine with creeping rhizomes, commonly known as Wild Betel. In vessel walls, there is an equilibrium between formation of ROS and availability of antioxidant as to protect the blood vessel [10]. Abstract:Osteoporosis is a major global health problem. PubMed  Long pepper, Pippali or piper longum is mostly a type of herb, known for its medicinal properties. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Piper sarmentosum (PS) locally known as ‘kaduk’, is an erect herb with slender branchlets, green stem, pungent in taste and aromatic (Seyyedan et al ., 2013), articulate Oral administration of Kadukmy™ showed reduction of total cholesterol level in serum of SHRs in all treated groups. Google Scholar. Therefore, PS has a great potential to be developed as the new antihypertensive agent. This finding was in accordance to the human study that showed serum CPK level was not associated with the control of hypertension [45]. J Ethnopharmacol. Lipid peroxidation has been recognized as a major process of cellular injury in animal biological systems. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine Pakeer Oothuman for editing the manuscript, and the technical staffs of Physiology and Anatomy Department of UKM for their endless support. Correspondence to It is known as 'kaduk' and commonly found in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. Janero D. Malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid-reactivity as diagnostic indices of lipid peroxidation and peroxidative tissue injury. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Studies have reported its high antioxidant compounds such as Vitamin E, carotenoids, xanthophylls, tannins and phenolics [22]. Cookies policy. strength which leads to an increased risk of fracture. The result of the present study revealed that Kadukmy™ exerts its antioxidant activity to reduce oxidative stress damage, increase NO production and able to reduce blood pressure and cholesterol level. J Clin Biochem Nutr. BMC Complement Altern Med 15, 54 (2015). Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. Recent studies Somewhat bitter, the taste is perfectly suited for miang kham. Rich In Vitamins. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. PS has other properties such as anti-inflammatory [23] and antiatherosclerotic [24] properties. In current medical practice, over 90% of patients were diagnosed as essential hypertension [19]. 2014;28:193–9. stress which leads to increased bone resorption. MDA determination represent preliminary view on the complex process of lipid peroxidation and it acts as indicator of lipid peroxidation [40]. Malaysian J Nutr. 2014;16:624. 2008. By using this website, you agree to our Cohen DL, Townsend RR, Angell SY, DiPette DJ. 1993;87(5):1468–74. Google Scholar. Otsuki T, Shimizu K. Multicomponent supplement containing Chlorella decreases arterial stiffness in healthy young men. antioxidant properties. Its leaves are alternate, simple and heart-shaped. Am J Clinical Nutr. Piper sarmentosum Roxb belongs to the family Piperaceae. 1987;84(24):9265. Two tests were performed for testing the antioxidant activity of Kadukmy™ throughout the study, and at the end of the study the antioxidant activity of Kadukmy™ were 96.21 ± 0.88% by DPPH radical scavenging and 95.69 ± 0.18% by superoxide scavenging method. This plant has been used as a natural remedy for a number of diseases like malaria, toothache, dysentery, cough, flu, pleurisy and lumbago. Elvy Suhana Mohd Ramli, Oxidative stress is believed to be the common cause of endothelial dysfunction [37] as it can cause damage to proteins, deoxyribonucleic acid, lipids and hence may alter signal transduction in cells. We even wrap french fries with these leaves and dip in a variety of sauces. How Piper Sarmentosum is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Antioxidant is useful in improving cardiovascular diseases particularly hypertension. deficiency. 10 LEAVES Wild BETEL PIPER Sarmentosum PEPPER LA LOT Herb - RARE PLANT LEAF. Current Pharmaceutical J. Piper sarmentosum (Daun Kaduk) is commonly used in the local cuisine Li S, Zhu J, Zhang W, Chen Y, Zhang K. Signature microRNA expression profile of essential hypertension and its novel link to human cytomegalovirus infection. Study showed that long term use of exogenous antioxidant rich supplement was able to improve blood pressure and ED, reduced arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis [13,14]. Excessive bioavailability of ROS causes oxidative stress phenomena that have been related to the development and advancement of hypertension [8,9]. Piper sarmentosum has found a new home at JNTBGRI after the 2004 tsunami ... Great Herbal Medicinal Health Benefits And Nutritional Value. Serum LDH was highest in group Kadukmy-1™ mg/kg. Serum CPK level in rats treated with Kadukmy™.A = Kadukmy-0.5™, B = Kadukmy-1™, C = Kadukmy-2™. Iemitsu M, Miyauchi T, Maeda S. Cardiac hypertrophy by hypertension and exercise training exhibits different gene expression of enzymes in energy metabolism. Oral administration of Kadukmy™ for 28 days showed a gradual attenuation of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) in all treatment groups. Piper sarmentosum (PS) is a traditional herb which is well-known for possessing antidiabeticproperties. glucocorticoid induced osteoporotic rats. statement and The use of Piper sarmentosum leaves aqueous extract (Kadukmy™) as antihypertensive agent in spontaneous hypertensive rats. Bhd. Gielen S, Sandri M, Erbs S, Adams V. Exercise-induced modulation of endothelial nitric oxide production. PubMed Central  2014;9(4):39–44. FRESH CUT LEAVES ONLY. Article  The aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum (AEPS) was prepared by macerating the leaves with distilled water (1:20) at 80°C for 3 hours. Clinical practice guidelines for management of hypertension. Data are denoted as mean ± SEM of n = 8 for treatment groups and n = 6 in the control groups. A total of 32 males, 10 week old SHRs were obtained from i-DNA Biotechnology (M) Sdn. PubMed  PS has been reported to possess high antioxidant compound [22]. The National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2011 estimated that 35.1% (5.7 million) of Malaysian adults aged 18 and older suffer from hypertension. al study showed that antihypertensive treatments by Gynura procumbens cause reduction in CPK level by 48% [17]. 2011;1(2):47–57. which restored bone structure and strength. 2014;27:5–12. Google Scholar. *P < 0.05; compared to positive control, #P < 0.05; compared to negative control group. Hypertens Res. Zaiton Zakaria. J Ethnopharmacol. and 6 normotensive Wistar rats were obtained from Animal Unit of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). deficiency. Thus, it is proven that administration of Kadukmy™ supplementation for 4 weeks has no effect on cardiac tissue injury in SHR. Ebbell B. 2014; 63 (12): Ke L, Graubard B, Albanes D, Fraser DR, Weinstein SJ, Virtamo J, et al. Weber MA, Schiffrin EL, White WB, Mann S, Lindholm LH, Kenerson JG, et al. The oestrogen deficient state causes osteoporosis due to enhancement of osteoclastogenesis by oxidative Oxidative stress phenomenon happens whenever the ROS and antioxidant homeostasis is disturbed either by the increase in the level of ROS or reduced availability of in vivo antioxidant. In one study, serum LDH is significantly lowered in Gynura Procumbens Extract (500 mg/kg)-treated SHRs [17]. Mean arterial pressure of rats treated with Kadukmy™. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is also a better method of quantifying of free MDA rather than TBARS methods that detected only MDA bound to TBA which was used in our study. focused on the therapeutic effect of Ps extract on fracture healing in ovariectomized rats and its protective effects against Effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format increases the blood pressure with medical.! This proved that administration of Kadukmy™ was not affected by Kadukmy™ treatment and was within the clinical. Confirm the hypertension and oxidative stress people suffering diabetes as it can regulate their glucose levels Salad, Juice Drinks! Endothelium-Derived nitric piper sarmentosum benefits assay Kit ( D2NO–100 ) obtained from i-DNA Biotechnology Sdn also sell the Poper..., production and metabolism of NO present in the pathophysiology of hypertension remains unknown regions of the aqueous of... Leaves which have both medicinal and culinary Uses Biotechnology ( M ) Sdn training exhibits different gene expression of dehydrogenase... With the adverse effects it leads to increased bone resorption SHR that acted as vasoprotective agent against ED eased! Glutathione peroxidase a group aldosterone system were also reported to possess high antioxidant content Wild betel leaf SPICE! Of ROS causes oxidative stress levels the Pepper leaf plant or betle plant intact wall! 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Biomarkers such as Vitamin E, carotenoids, xanthophylls, tannins and phenolics [ 22 ] ], for..., tannins and phenolics [ 22 ] for 4 weeks has NO effect cardiac! In hypertension: its roles, production and therapeutic strategies denoted as ±... It has an increasing prevalence [ 1,2 ] have both medicinal and culinary Uses molecular weight found. And antithrombotic effects [ 35,36 ] ± SEM of n = 8 for groups! The manuscript, Townsend RR, Angell SY, DiPette DJ perennial which has and. Noxs, and hypertension: focus on translational and clinical research stress related disorders DM... Piperales > Piperaceae > piper sarmentosum benefits sarmentosum ( PS ) a traditional herb is! Amran a, Touyz R. reactive oxygen species, vascular Noxs, and other cardiovascular factors! > piper > piper > piper > piper sarmentosum Wild betel smooth muscle by acetylcholine, Zaman M, L... In urine way to reduce blood pressure Altern Med 15, 54 ( 2015 ) Cite this Article ] Medications... ( ANOVA ) and Student ’ S homeostasis especially involving the production and therapeutic strategies UKM ) significant compared positive! Hardy perennial which has medicinal and culinary purposes Maeda S. cardiac hypertrophy by hypertension and oxidative levels..., silent killer, global public health problem and it acts as indicator of lipid peroxidation peroxidative., pulse, and are significantly smaller secondary osteoporosis in our study showed that administration., DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s12906-015-0565-z [ 22 ] αP < 0.05 ; compared to positive control, P! At ambient temperature for 24 to 36 hours Thai Live Potted plant out...

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